Tuesday, March 17, 2020
An analysis of the character John Nash in the movie A beautiful Mind. Introduction Various theories have been fronted by psychological professionals to explain the reasons why individuals respond to changes in their lives in a particular way. Elizabeth Hutchinson has particularly provided extensive studies on different theoretical perspectives that can be used to analyze an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s situation in her book titled, Ã¢â¬Å"Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment.Ã¢â¬ Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on An analysis of the character John Nash in the movie A beautiful Mind specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay is based on a study carried out on the character John Nash from the film A Beautiful Mind. HutchinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical perspectives will serve as guides in the analysis assisted by the work of various other writers. Five theoretical perspectives have been used to analyze NashÃ¢â¬â¢s situation in relation to the society in which he lives. These fiv e theories are part of the eight perspectives which Elizabeth Hutchinson has explained in detail in her book Dimensions of Human Behavior (2008). Synopsis of the movie A Beautiful Mind John Nash (Russell Crowe) is awarded the prestigious Carnegie prize for mathematics and joins Princeton University. Initially, he is supposed to have a room to himself but he is surprised to find that he has a roommate by the name Charles. Charles is a literature student and the two soon become friends. Other than Charles, members of NashÃ¢â¬â¢s social circle at Princeton are either Mathematics or Science graduate students, amongst them his greatest rival in class, Martin Hansen. For his thesis paper, Nash works on a theory in mathematical economics; a concept that is inspired by an unsuccessful attempt to chat up a woman at a bar. He finally graduates and accepts an offer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology A Beautiful Mind 4 (MIT). While working as a Mathematics lecturer at MIT five years down the line, he falls in love with Alicia Larde (Jennifer Connelly), one of his students, and they eventually get married. Later, Nash returns to Princeton where he meets Charles, his former roommate and CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢ niece, Marcee. He also meets William Parcher (Ed Harris), a mysterious agent who invites him to the United States Defense Department located at the Pentagon for an assignment. He (Nash) is expected to crack a very complex encryption code to an enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s telecommunication network. His fellow hackers are amazed and at the same time impressed by how easily he cracks the code.Advertising Looking for term paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After this incredible success, Nash is assigned a new task to look for patterns in various publications; information which would be used to stop an invasion plan by the Soviet. He is instructed to deliver the report of his findings to a par ticular mailbox. The Russians become aware of his involvement and hunt him down with the aim of killing him. The danger he finds himself in makes him paranoid and he starts making inconsistent decisions. While giving a lecture at Harvard University, he notices a group of people watching him and attempts to flee. His pursuers soon catch up with him and after putting him under sedatives, they send him to a psychiatric hospital. His paranoia causes him to perceive the attendants at the facility as Soviet kidnappers on a mission to obtain unlisted information from him. Alicia, goes to the mailbox and recovers the documents that Nash had deposited months earlier and uses them to confront him. It is then that he is convinced that he has been hallucinating. He discovers that the meetings with Marcee, CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢ niece as well as the encounters with Parcher have all been A Beautiful Mind 5 figments of his imagination. He receives insulin shock therapy and is released from the facility o n condition that he promises to take antipsychotic medication. Unfortunately, the drugs that he is prescribed to negatively affect his intellectual capacity and the frustration that ensues puts a strain on his marriage. He finally gets off the medication and relapses into psychosis. The situation is so bad that he almost drowns his son while bathing him. His wife takes the child and attempts to run away for fear of losing their lives but he blocks the carÃ¢â¬â¢s path. It suddenly occurs to him that Marcee never grows old since the first time he met her and he once again accepts that he has been hallucinating. He finally resigns to the fact that he has to live on medication and even gets a job at Princeton courtesy of his old-time academic rival, Martin Hansen who happens to be the head of the institution.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on An analysis of the character John Nash in the movie A beautiful Mind specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/pag e Learn More Eventually, he is allowed to teach again and wins several accolades including a Nobel Prize in economics for his work in Mathematics. Character analysis The analysis character John Nash can be approached from perspectives which include psychological, social and spiritual (Hutchinson, 2008: Carter, McGoldrick, 2004). Psychologically, Nash is initially a well balanced individual who is able to make informed decisions on his own. However as the film continues, he starts becoming unstable as the film proceeds with paranoia taking the best of him. Socially, Nash is very awkward in the sense that he does not know how to relate with women or even men who are not as bright as him. This aspect limits his life by confining his relations to A Beautiful Mind 6 the very few people that can understand him. Spiritually, Nash can be described as an earthly person since from the film he is not linked to a particular religion. Environmental factors contribute to the deve lopment of a character Theoretical perspectives Theoretical perspectives are ideas that are suggested for analysis of a situation based on the surrounding factors (Carter, McGodrick, 2004). These theories are descriptions of the various features surrounding an individual that make him respond to situation in a particular way. For instance the most common aspects of society that play into the development of an individual include personal, family, community and environmental attributes (Greene, 2002). Review of theoretical perspectives described by Hutchinson. In her book, Dimensions of Human behavior, Hutchinson explains eight factors which determine an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s character. These are briefly summarized below:Advertising Looking for term paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Systems Perspective- This theory fronts the idea that in society all aspects that surround human beings are interconnected Conflicts Perspective-This is a view that in society there has to be inequalities for relations to the systems to run effectively. Social Behavioral Perspective- This is a concept that links the development of human behavior to observation of certain aspects of society. Developmental Perspective-Studies human development as a series of changes happening at various points in their lives. A Beautiful Mind 7 Humanistic perspective- This theory is based on the fact that human beings are able to evolve and reinvent themselves. It mainly helps to explain why changes happen in life. Rational choice perspective- This perspective views human beings as individuals with the ability to make defendable choices. Social Constructionist perspective- This theory is an analysis of the diversity of the life basing on the premise that what happens today is not necessarily what will happen tomorrow. Psychodynamic perspective- This is also an analysis of the constant changes that occur in human life. Of these eight perspectives, five were selected to analyze the character of John Nash, picked from the film A Beautiful Mind. These five are the systems, conflict, developmental, social behavioral and the humanistic perspectives. Systems perspective This theory analyses society by the functions that are carried out by its various elements. These functions are mainly cultures, traditions and institutions that work together resulting in the proper functioning of the whole system. The most common analogy used to support this theory is organicism whereby society is viewed as a living creature whose various parts have to be coordinated for proper functioning of the whole (Bertalanffy, 1968). Various premises have been fronted to support this theory; these are: A Beautiful Mind 8 Society comprises independent parts whose functions are however interrelated. Each part of society has certain standards and fixed roles. The different parts of society can at no time be equal; some are of more significance than others (Churchman, 1968). The systems in society have boundaries which give them individual uniqueness. Change taking place in society is gradual and incremental. The film A Beautiful Mind is full of networks which effectively make the society function naturally. When Nash reports to Princeton College, he is assigned a roommate, Charles with whom he strikes a close friendship. Their association contributes to the well-being of each one of them. Charles serves as the only link that Nash has with the social world while NashÃ¢â¬â¢s awkwardness in interacting with people helps Charles have a sense of dominance which balances NashÃ¢â¬â¢s superiority in academics. The university administration has a well defined relationship with the students. It however has more power over the students and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fail to exercise this authority. The most i mportant network in the entire film starts when Nash meets and marries Alicia. Together with their child, they make a small social unit with everybody playing a role aimed at looking after the welfare of the other members of the family. As a husband and father NashÃ¢â¬â¢s actions bear a direct impact on his family. When he starts having paranoid schizophrenic attacks, he is unable to function properly in both at work and at the home causing a lot of worry to his wife. At some point he almost drowns his infant son and therefore fails to A Beautiful Mind 9 provide the sense of security that he is expected to deliver as a father. Alicia as well has to deal with changes occurring in her life. Aside from taking care of their son, she also has to watch over her husband and keep him from hurting himself. She gets him admitted at a psychiatric hospital and also goes out of her way to find the letter that he had delivered to a mailbox and uses it to bring him to reality. Their little famil y has boundaries which keep other people from completely interfering with its internal affairs. Outsiders step in to offer a hand only when invited. For instance, Nash is picked up and taken to the psychiatric hospital only when Alicia calls and asks for assistance. Conflict perspectives This perspective is based on the fact that there are inequalities in society which are either political or socio-economic in nature (Lenski, 1966). It is set on the following five premises: People, when acting either as individuals or in groups, try to impose their interests on others. Power and authority are not equally divided among social groups. There are some groups which are dominant over others (Odum, 1994). Order in society is achieved by the dominant groups manipulating the smaller groups. If there is no open conflict in a society, then one group is being exploited. Change in society is brought about by conflict whereby lengthy phases of stability are interrupted by periods of change. A B eautiful Mind 10 Conflict presents itself in the film in a number of incidents. When Nash reports to Princeton, he expects to be given a single room. The college however allocates him a shared room and since there is nothing much he can do to change the situation, he accepts things as they are. The destabilization of NashÃ¢â¬â¢s mental functioning results in conflict within his family. His mental problems cause him to have little or no power over his wife. Alicia on her part gets some measure of power in the sense that she can call the psychiatric hospital and get them to handle her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. She however has no control over his paranoia when he stops taking medication and has to depend on him to figure out things for himself. When Nash finally agrees to live on medication, he resigns to the fact that he has no power over his mental forces. This decision however serves him well by giving him back his role as breadwinner. He can now have some authority over his wif e and son. However, when he goes looking for a job, his sense of power is dominated by more powerful forces existing in the job market. He has to depend on old acquaintances to get a job. He therefore has to operate under the terms and conditions of these powerful characters. Developmental perspective The focal point of this perspective is how human character is modified and remains the same in certain parts of the life cycle. The development of humans is regarded as a multifaceted interaction of psychological, biological and social progressions which happen in well distinguished stages of life (Long, 2001). With each A Beautiful Mind 11 new stage, changes are brought about in the social roles of individuals as well as their status. This perspective is based on the five premises listed below: Human growth takes place in various phases that are dependent on the age of the individual. Life stages are qualitatively distinct from each other. Developmental stages in life happen chronolo gically with each stage structuring on earlier stages. Transition from one stage in life to another demands that changes occur in roles played by an individual as well as in the status of the person. Human development depends on the interaction of social, biological and psychosomatic factors. The Nash family can be studied in terms of the developmental obligations that each member has to take care of. Nash develops paranoid schizophrenia and has to constantly battle hallucinations. He finally realizes that he cannot make it without the use of medication. As much as the drugs help him function normally, they have the negative side effect of causing him to lose his intellectual capabilities. This is a very frustrating development since he is used to always being the smartest. With a family to take care of, Nash has to accept whatever job he can get regardless of how lowly it is compared to his previous occupation. Alicia on her part has to grow into the role of mother to her child an d caregiver to her husband. She becomes the voice of reason and has to exercise dominion over her husband in order to keep the family intact. This new roles reduce her span of operation A Beautiful Mind 12 To within the house and her primary interactions are her husband and son; her social network is killed. Social behavioral perspective The social behavioral perspective works under the principle that human beings acquire character traits by their interaction with the environment (Layton, 1997). The following five premises help support this theory. Human behavior is acquired when people interact with each other and with their environment (Schmuel, Horst, 1985). Any learned behavior can be modified. Human character is acquired through the corroboration of personal expectations and consequence. All problems that individuals face can be expressed as objectionable behavior. Similar learning processes happening in separate environments will result in marked differences in human characte r. From the film, there are various things that may have happened earlier in NashÃ¢â¬â¢s life that cause him to suffer mental destabilization. Perhaps he lost a sister called Marcee at childhood who he now sees as CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢ niece. Marcee could also be a child from a past relationship that we have not been told about. In other words, there are endless possibilities as to who Marcee could be. His interaction with Parcher and assignment to top secret jobs could have been unfulfilled childhood dreams. Being a socially retarded individual there is also a possibility that Nash could not handle the A Beautiful Mind 13 roles he was assigned when he got married since they required that he had other people to think of before making certain decisions. This is unlike in his single days when everything was aimed at developing his personal intellect. Alicia fits into her roles perfectly. She sticks to her responsibility as mother and at no time considers terminating her marriage even whe n the conditions seem unfavorable. Her determination could have been influenced by past experiences. She could have been raised by a single mother and had understood the challenges that children in such homes faced. There is also a chance that her father may have been incapacitated at one time and her mother nursed him to stability and therefore by extension she (Alicia) is putting into practice something she had learned earlier in life. Humanistic perspective This perspective strives to emphasize the freedom of individuals to act in certain ways as well as the pursuit of significance (Berger, 1963). The humanistic perspective is founded on the following ideas: Each person is uniquely different and has distinctive values. Everybody is personally responsible for choices that he/she makes within the thresholds of freedom. Human beings have the ability to revolutionize themselves. Character is motivated by an aspiration for growth and by a yearning to relate with other individuals. In dividuals make psychological ultimatums on each other and efforts to meet such demands end up in angst. A Beautiful Mind 14 In some way, John Nash shows some level of perseverance over the challenges that come with mental instability. He has had to compromise trading his superior intellectual capabilities for proper functioning within the society. The conditions he finds himself in may not give him much of an option but he is an adult capable of making choices and sometimes rethinks these choices. This is shown when he stops taking medication on account of the negative effects it has on his brain. As an analyst however, these are just presumptions and there is a desire to meet Nash and hear his side of the story as well as get to know how he perceives his current situation. Alicia deserves a lot of admiration for her commitment towards her husband and child. She makes the decision to stay in the marriage and help work things out even when the chances of success appear odd. However, it is assumed that she makes choices consciously and it is only until someone gets to interview her that her opinions regarding her situation can be revealed. Reasons for selecting the perspectives above The above five perspectives were chosen because of their effectiveness to comprehensively analyze real life situations. Each perspective has its strengths and limitations and therefore cannot be used individually if a proper analysis is to be carried out. The systems perspective was chosen because of its ability to illustrate the importance of networks within a small group of individuals as well as link this small group to the wider society. This perspective however has the limitation of appearing too abstract in the sense that it does not only define human interactions but also includes A Beautiful Mind 15 the influence of other societal aspects such as the economy on human beings. Sociology is a field of study that generally emphasizes the notion of change. As a sociological theo ry therefore, the systems perspective appears too conservative by insisting on the aspect of maintenance of stability within the system. The conflict perspective was chosen because within any society there has to be variances. Its ability to illustrate how balance is maintained in society by individuals trying to exercise dominion over others clearly helps understand certain behavioral characteristics. It also has the weakness of being too abstract by not clearly focusing on human relations with each other. The developmental perspective was selected because it considers the fact that human beings are always undergoing changes in their lives. These changes require people to adapt to new ways of doing things whether they like it or not. The social behavioral perspective was used because of its relevance in analyzing learned human behavior. However, its major weakness is that it fails to factor in the innate characteristics of individuals in its insistence that all behavior is learned from experience. Finally, the humanistic perspective was included in the analysis because the study character was a fully grown man capable of making independent decisions. This perspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢s major limitation is the fact that it does not consider factors that may affect an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to make informed choices such as mental illness. Challenges A Beautiful Mind 16 The major challenge in analyzing this case was the fact that most of the events happening in the film are hallucinations. Actions or relations happening in these parts could not be used in the analysis and they all had to be categorized under paranoia. The few events that were happening outside NashÃ¢â¬â¢s brain had to form the basis of study and this posed a slight challenge in the scrutiny. Another challenge came in the form of choosing which perspectives to use in the essay because all eight perspectives could effectively explain some events taking place in the life of John Nash. This was howeve r resolved by selecting perspectives that had fewer and less critical limitations. Reference List Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Anchor press/Doubleday. Bertalanffy, L.V. (1968). Organismic Psychology and Systems Theory. Worchester: Clark University Press. Carter, B. McGoldrick, M. (2004). The Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family,Ã and Social Perspectives. (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Churchman, C.W. (1968). The systems approach. New York: Laurel. Greene, R.R. (2002). Resiliency: An integrated approach to policy practice andÃ research. Washington D.C: NASW Press. Hutchingson, E.D. (2008) Dimensions of Human Behavior. (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Layton, R. (1997). An Introduction to Theory in Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lenski, G. E. (1966). Power and Privilege: A Theory of Social Stratification. Ryerson. Canada: McGraw-Hill. Long, N. (2001). Development sociology: Actor p erspectives. New York: Routledge. Odum, H. (1994). Ecological and General Systems: An introduction to systems ecology.Ã Colorado: Colorado University Press. Schmuel, N.E., Horst, J.H. (1985). Perspectives on Sociological Theory: Micro-Ã sociological theory. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Alcohol and Tobacco Although the public knows about the negative effects of these products, people still continue to use the substances without thinking twice. These products are legal if you are of age, so people will continue to experiment with alcohol and tobacco. On the other hand, drugs are not legal and are not advertised all over the media because they are prohibited in our society. If drugs were legal, experimentation and usage of these dangerous and deadly drugs would skyrocket. The usage of alcohol and tobacco is legal, but the usage of drugs should be prohibited in the United States. A theory is that if a person tries one drug such as marijuana, there is a high likelihood that that person will eventually try a harder drug such as cocaine. This is a very scary thought. If drugs were legal, many more individuals would be trying them. The media would be advertising cocaine like it was voldka. There is a large difference between these two products. People would feel like it was okay to experiment with the drug because its usage was legal. This could be harmful, because everyone can have a different effect to each drug. Drugs such as cocaine and heroin are highly addictive and dangerous. They not only cause damage to the person using but also to surrounding people. I am not trying to undersize alcohol and the damage it can cause, but at least there are laws against driving while intoxicated so that you can prevent yourself from harming another individual. Tobacco use affects your body in the long run, but other than second hand smoke, it does not directly put others in danger. Certain drugs can make a person spiral out of control and make them do certain things that they would never do if they were clean. A counter viewpoint is that drugs should be legalized because it is a person choice to use or consume whatever they wish. Advocates of legalizing drugs say that people will use drugs if they have the desire to whether it is legal or illegal. They mention that what is the difference between tobacco and alcohol versus drugs. Alcohol can be just as damaging to other people as drugs can be sometimes. The United States is a free country where we can speak how we feel and do how we feel and no one can tell us how to live our life. They say that if people want to use alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs, they should have the freedom to do so. Both sides make valid points, but I definitely feel that drug usage would contaminate our society even more. Alcohol and Tobacco Although the public knows about the negative effects of these products, people still continue to use the substances without thinking twice. These products are legal if you are of age, so people will continue to experiment with alcohol and tobacco. On the other hand, drugs are not legal and are not advertised all over the media because they are prohibited in our society. If drugs were legal, experimentation and usage of these dangerous and deadly drugs would skyrocket. The usage of alcohol and tobacco is legal, but the usage of drugs should be prohibited in the United States. A theory is that if a person tries one drug such as marijuana, there is a high likelihood that that person will eventually try a harder drug such as cocaine. This is a very scary thought. If drugs were legal, many more individuals would be trying them. The media would be advertising cocaine like it was voldka. There is a large difference between these two products. People would feel like it was okay to experiment with the drug because its usage was legal. This could be harmful, because everyone can have a different effect to each drug. Drugs such as cocaine and heroin are highly addictive and dangerous. They not only cause damage to the person using but also to surrounding people. I am not trying to undersize alcohol and the damage it can cause, but at least there are laws against driving while intoxicated so that you can prevent yourself from harming another individual. Tobacco use affects your body in the long run, but other than second hand smoke, it does not directly put others in danger. Certain drugs can make a person spiral out of control and make them do certain things that they would never do if they were clean. A counter viewpoint is that drugs should be legalized because it is a person choice to use or consume whatever they wish. Advocates of legalizing drugs say that people will use drugs if they have the desire to whether it is legal or illegal. They mention that what is the difference between tobacco and alcohol versus drugs. Alcohol can be just as damaging to other people as drugs can be sometimes. The United States is a free country where we can speak how we feel and do how we feel and no one can tell us how to live our life. They say that if people want to use alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs, they should have the freedom to do so. Both sides make valid points, but I definitely feel that drug usage would contaminate our society even more. Alcohol and Tobacco
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Comparison of three areas of law - Essay Example On the other hand, the UK legal systems are stricter and protect the plight of traders, employees and members of contracts. The EU laws provide a clearly approach to define relationships within contracts and encourage foreign investors by providing a friendlier tax system as compared to the situation in the US legal system. From this perspective, it is crucial for both legal structures to harmonise their regulations to provide a better legal framework for its public. In the UK, there exists a written contract of employment that puts obligations both on the employee and the employer. The contract of employment requires that both parties the conditions implies in the contract letter. The UK is one of the countries that offer protection to its employees. The employer is answerable to court if he or she breaks any term implied in the contract. For instance, an employer must issue a notice before terminating an employee.2 On the other hand, the US government provides no statutory protection to employees. Hence, the employer can fire the employee any time. Unless there is a personal offense, the court does not protect the employee From a close observation, there exists a wide range of similarities and differences within the UK and US Employment laws. The two legal systems are similar in the sense that they seek to end discrimination within the employment sector. Hence both laws have clauses that prohibit employment discrimination in terms of gender, origin, race or even color. This appears to be an effort to embrace diversity management within these nations. However, the UK and US employment laws differ in a great way. To begin with, the US Laws provide no contract stipulations for employment. Therefore, issues of termination, salary, holidays and allowances all depend on the agreement between the employee and employer. This is much different from the UK legal
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Cultural Artifacts - Essay Example All these and many other aspects altogether represent our culture and its evolution over time. To prove my point I will concentrate on architecture how it is reflective of the culture. It not only represents the present but also has traces of the past. By observing architecture of any society over the years you can observe the evolution of their culture. It shows our values and beliefs. Architecture actually encompasses all three eras, traces of our past, needs of our present and aspirations of our future. Archeology In order to fully understand evolutionary process of architecture we need to develop sound understanding of archeology and dating methods. Crucially understanding of the past depends on the efficiency of the chronological dating methods employed. Indus civilization As we all know Indus civilization is one the oldest civilizations of the world. Some of the things found in excavations dates back to as early as 2800 BCE (McIntosh). A good understanding of their culture was developed through the literature found in some of the writings, pottery and remains of the buildings. The Indus civilization is distinctive in its indigenous development from the cotemporary civilizations. Its architecture does not bear any sign of warfare of that time. They had elaborate drainage system and well planned urban layout. Although scarcity of any building was observed, which could be identified as temple or monument? Architecture and Sculpture History According to historians large wooden houses, palaces and barns were being built in India from around 1700 BC. Although it does not have much creativity and durability was also questionable. (Subcontinent) Some stone architecture and sculpture started in India in 300 BC under the influence of Greeks and Persians. Artifacts are a good source of studying the economic and cultural conditions of any time. It was well reflected in the buildings of that era also. In fact the understanding we have developed about the older civiliz ations and their evolution and growth was achieved by studying the artifacts of those times. Indians moved from traditional wooden architecture to stone architecture and fine masonry work under the influence of foreigners. But the artifacts they produced had the Indian touch and were reflective of their culture. Rock Architecture History of Rock architecture in India dates back to eighth century. There are remains of a temple in Ellora in central Asia. (William J. Duiker) It was named after the holy mountains and it is beautifully carved out of a hill side. Traces of this form of architecture were also found in Africa. It is reflective of the technological advancement of that time because carving a mountain needed a lot of skill and equipment. It is also reflective of the religious beliefs of the time. Most of the religious architecture of that time consisted of Buddhist cave temples and monasteries. The next millennium witnessed impressive sculptures and paintings. Religious archit ecture evolved from caves to monumental structures. They were even decorated with ceilings, door frames, relevant paintings and other accessories which marked the welfare of the civilization. Islamic Architecture When India was conquered by Mughals Indian architecture took a large leap forward. Mughals were found of architecture. Magnificent buildings all over India are a proof of their taste and love for
Friday, January 24, 2020
The world is filled with many different types of professional people that help maintain our health status. Registered nurses are one of these important professional people that take care of the sick and maintain health all around the world and in our community. Registered nurses also work to prevent disease , to educate the public about health issues , to enhance public health , and to help support ill patients both physically and mentally. In this essay I will describe and explain what is a registered nurse, education and certification, employment, and professional activities. Registered nurses are licensed by the state in which he or she practices after completing certain training and education. The three educational paths to registered nursing are bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, an associate degree, and a diploma from a approved nursing program. Registered nurses are used mostly everywhere because they are present when doctors cannot assist you immediately and they can prescribe medication. Registered nurses regardless of specialty or work setting, monitor all aspects of patient care including diet and physical activities, and provide advice and emotional support to patients and family members. And most of the places they work include family practices , adult practices , womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health , pediatrics , acute care and gerontology. Registered nurses work under pressure everyday to treat life conditions such as accidents , heart attacks and strokes. Registered nurses also take care for patients in critical condition , or illness , and they must be able to recognize life threatening problems quickly and assist a patient with care . Registered nurses may suffer from stresses and burnout caused by shift , night work ... ... S. (2011). Development Across the life span. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Haroun, J. M. (2011). INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH CARE SECOND EDITION. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning. Marieb, E. N. (2011). Human anatomy and Physiology seventh edition. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Prabhupada, A. B. (2011). THE SCIENCE OF SELF REALIZATION. California: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, Inc. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. (2011, March 5). Retrieved March 5, 2011, from BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS: www.bls.gov Whitney, E. (2011). UNDERSTANDING NUTRITION. Ohio: Cengage Learning. Education-portal. (2010). Private Universities in Florida. Retrieved from: http://education-portal.com/private_universities_in_florida.html eHow. (2010). Catholic Hospice, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/about 5098909 florida-rn-license-requirements.html
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Galileo Galilei, a world-renowned physicist, was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564. He was the oldest of seven children. His father was a musician and wool trader, who wanted his son to study medicine as there was more money in medicine. At age eleven, Galileo was sent off to study in a Jesuit monastery. After four years, Galileo had announced to his father that he wanted to be a monk. This was not exactly what father had in mind, so Galileo was hastily withdrawn from the monastery. In 1581, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine, as his father wished but never completed it because of his keen interest in mathematics and philosophy. At age twenty, Galileo noticed a lamp swinging overhead while he was in a cathedral. Curious to find out how long it took the lamp to swing back and forth, he used his pulse to time large and small swings. Galileo discovered something that no one else had ever realized, which was the period of each swing was exactly the same. The law of the pendulum, which would eventually be used to regulate clocks, made Galileo Galilei instantly famous. In 1592, he was appointed to the position of a mathematician at the University of Padua and it was during his time, he began his work on the telescope. While in Padua, he met Marina Gamba and in 1600 their daughter Virginia was born. In 1601 they had another daughter Livia and in 1606 a son Vincenzo. GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s research was specialized in the motion of inclined planes, motion of the pendulum and the motion of freely falling bodies. He is known for his breakthrough discoveries and also his controversial beliefs which allowed for a more modern and practical science. Galileo was the first person to direct a refractive telescope out into the night sky and he decided to study the Moon. One of his largest discoveries was that there were four moons orbiting Jupiter. Another one of GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s observations through his telescope was that the planet Venus went through phase changes similar to our Moon. Galileo had noticed that the observable size of Venus as seen through his telescope is related to the position of the planet relative to the Sun. This observation had pushed Galileo to believe that the Earth and other planets had to revolve around the Sun or it would not be feasible for Venus to have a phase change. This is known as the Copernican System. For Galileo Galilei, saying that the Earth went around the Sun changed everything since he was contradicting the teachings of the Church. While some of the ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s mathematicians wrote that his observations were clearly correct, many members of the Church believed that he must be wrong and accused him of committing Ã¢â¬Å"heresyÃ¢â¬ , which was a very serious matter. However, Galileo was found innocent of all charges but was cautioned not to teach the Copernican System. In 1634, while Galileo was under house arrest, his daughter, Virginia died. At this time he began work on his final book, Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations concerning Two New Sciences. This book was smuggled out of Italy and published in Holland. Galileo died early in 1642. Due to his conviction, he was buried obscurely in 1737.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
The Destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. caused the period in Jewish history known as the Babylonian Exile. Ironically, as with the prophets warnings in the book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible, Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar also gave the Jews fair warning of what could happen, if they crossed him, in the way he devastated Ashkelon, the capital of their enemies, the Philistines. The Warning from Ashkelon New archaeological findings in the ruins of Ashkelon, Philistias main seaport, are providing evidence that Nebuchadnezzars conquest of his enemies was utterly merciless. If Judahs kings had heeded the warnings of the prophet Jeremiah about imitating Ashkelon and embracing Egypt, Jerusalems destruction might have been avoided. Instead, the Jews ignored both the religious rantings of Jeremiah and the unequivocal real-world implications of Ashkelons fall. In the late 7th century B. C., Philistia and Judah were battlegrounds for the power struggle between Egypt and a resurgent neo-Babylonia to take over the remnants of the late Assyrian Empire. In the mid-7th century B.C., Egypt made allies of both Philistia and Judah. In 605 B.C, Nebuchadnezzar led Babylonias army to a decisive victory over Egyptian forces at the Battle of Carchemish on the Euphrates River in what is now western Syria. His conquest is noted in Jeremiah 46:2-6. Nebuchadnezzar Fought Through the Winter After Carchemish, Nebuchadnezzar pursued an unusual battle strategy: he continued to wage war through the winter of 604 B.C., which is the rainy season in the Near East. By fighting through sometimes torrential rains despite the hazards posed to horses and chariots, Nebuchadnezzar proved to be an unorthodox, persistent general capable of unleashing terrifying devastation. In a 2009 article titled The Fury of Babylon for the Biblical Archaeology Societys e-book, Israel: An Archaeological Journey, Lawrence E. Stager cites a fragmentary cuneiform record called the Babylonian Chronicle: [Nebuchadnezzar] marched to the city of Ashkelon and captured it in the month of Kislev [November/December]. He captured its king and plundered it and carried off [spoil from it ...]. He turned the city into a mound (Akkadian ana tili, literally a tell) and heaps of ruins ...; Evidence Sheds Light on Religion and Economy Dr. Stager writes that the Levy Expedition uncovered hundreds of artifacts at Ashkelon that shed light on Philistine society. Among the items recovered were dozens of large, wide-mouth jars that could hold wine or olive oil. The climate of Philistia in the 7th century B.C. made it ideal to grow grapes for wine and olives for oil. Thus archaeologists now think its reasonable to propose that these two products were the Philistines principal industries. Wine and olive oil were priceless commodities in the late 7th century because they were the basis of food, medicines, cosmetics, and other preparations. A trade agreement with Egypt for these products would have been financially advantageous to Philistia and Judah. Such alliances also would pose a threat to Babylon, because those with wealth could better arm themselves against Nebuchadnezzar. In addition, the Levy researchers found signs that religion and commerce were closely intertwined in Ashkelon. On top of a pile of rubble in Ã¢â¬â¹the main bazaar they found a rooftop altar where incense had been burned, usually a sign of seeking a gods favor for some human endeavor. The prophet Jeremiah also preached against this practice (Jeremiah 32:39), calling it one of the sure signs of the destruction of Jerusalem. Finding and dating the Ashkelon altar was the first time an artifact confirmed the existence of these altars mentioned in the Bible. Sobering Signs of Mass Destruction The archaeologists uncovered more evidence that Nebuchadnezzar was ruthless in conquering his enemies as he was in the destruction of Jerusalem. Historically when a city was besieged, the greatest damage could be found along its walls and fortified gates. In Ashkelons ruins, however, the greatest destruction lies at the center of the city, spreading outward from areas of commerce, government, and religion. Dr. Stager says this indicates that the invaders strategy was to cut off the centers of power and then pillage and destroy the city. This was precisely the way the destruction of Jerusalem proceeded, evidenced by the devastation of the First Temple. Dr. Stager acknowledges that archaeology cant precisely confirm Nebuchadnezzars conquest of Ashkelon in 604 B.C. However, it has proven clearly that the Philistine seaport was utterly destroyed around that time, and other sources confirm the Babylonian campaign of that same era. Warnings Unheeded in Judah The citizens of Judah may have rejoiced to learn of Nebuchadnezzars conquest of AshkelonÃ since the Philistines had long been enemies of the Jews. Centuries earlier, David had mourned the death of his friend Jonathan and King Saul in 2 Samuel 1:20, Tell it not in Gath, proclaim it not in the streets of Ashkelon, lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice.... The Jews rejoicing at the Philistines misfortunes would have been short-lived. Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem in 599 B.C., conquering the city two years later. Nebuchadnezzar captured King Jeconiah and other Jewish elitesÃ and installed his own choice, Zedekiah, as king. When Zedekiah rebelled 11 years later in 586 B.C., Nebuchadnezzars destruction of Jerusalem was as merciless as his Philistine campaign. Sources: Exile of the Jews - Babylonian Captvity, http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/israeljudaea/a/BabylonianExile_2.htmThe Fury of Babylon by Lawrence E. Stager, Israel: An Archaeological Journey (Biblical Archaeology Society, 2009). The Oxford Study Bible with the Apocrypha, New Revised Standard Version (1994 Oxford University Press). Comments? Please post in forum thread.